A Strong Argument Against Deforestation: [Essay Example], words GradesFixer
Forest law By Jane Winters, Institute of Historical Research Before the Conquest the kings of England enjoyed the right to hunt freely on their own lands, but in this they did not differ significantly from any other landowner. This changed with the arrival of William the Conqueror.
In Normandy the strict preservation of game was confined to the ducal demesne, but the conquest of England offered a unique opportunity to extend the sphere of influence. At this stage it seems likely that the protection of hunting rights was still of paramount importance. William the Conqueror and his sons were notorious in their devotion to hunting. The compiler of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle noted that William As far as the organization and administration of the royal forest is concerned the single surviving pipe roll from the reign of Henry I is invaluable.
The pipe roll records revenue that is clearly derived from a general forest visitation. The efforts of the justices were concentrated in the south of England, although the forest of the bishopric of Chester was visited and pleas were heard in Gloucestershire and Huntingdonshire.
It would not be until the second half of the twelfth century that the unique financial potential of the forest began to be exploited systematically, but the essay on reserved forest in emphasis had begun.
A regard, yielding significant financial returns, was undertaken as early as 7 and by the mid s the framework that would survive into the next century and beyond was well established.
Bybetween one third and one quarter of England was considered by the king as within the bounds of the royal forest 8 and some twenty-nine counties were affected to a greater or lesser degree.
Anyone dwelling or holding land within the forest bounds was subject to a complex set of regulations, implemented by royal essays on reserved forest answerable only to the king. They were prevented from hunting freely but, more importantly, the laws of the vert denied them the right to utilise their land as they saw fit.
Amercements were imposed for offences falling into three main categories: waste, assart and purpresture.
Reserved essay forest
Waste, as the name implies, occurred when land was cleared. Individuals found guilty of waste were not only burdened with a punitive amercement but also had to pay a sum equivalent to the value of any trees or brushwood that they had cut down.
The waste of forest essay on reserved forest might be the result of the over-zealous collection of wood for fuel or building, but it was frequently a prelude to assarting, that is the creation of new arable land. As with waste the creation of an assart frequently resulted in a dual financial penalty; an initial amercement could be supplemented by an annual rent for the maintenance of the newly cleared ground.
If the assarted land was enclosed or built upon, an additional amercement would be imposed for what was called a essay on reserved forest. Finally, there were payments connected with the grazing of livestock, such as pannage. Perhaps the most telling description of the royal forest is offered by Richard fitz Nigel in his Dialogus de Scaccario He states that: the whole organisation of the forests, the punishment, pecuniary or corporal, of forest offences, is outside the jurisdiction of the other courts, and solely dependent on the decision of the King, or of some officer specially appointed by him.
The forest has its own laws, based At the most basic level each forest was patrolled by a number of riding and walking foresters, responsible for the day-to-day implementation of the forest law. They served under foresters-in-fee who in turn served under a warden or keeper. These men, and sometimes women, 11 were supported by agisters, verderers and regarders. They.
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